By Soy Sophea
In modern countries especially developed countries, most countries are using information communication technology. In the time of information technology, in order to develop a country, the people of the country must have more knowledge of the technology. ICT is from a phrase Information Communication and Technology. Some countries in Europe, America and Asia highly developed the ICT.
If we look into Cambodia, Cambodia has many sectors that must be developed such as agriculture, tourism that has Angkor Wat temple and other thousand of temples in the country. However, developments can not reply on only one sector.
Koh Santepheap newspaper volume 40 issue 6207 publish Saturday-Sunday 01-02 December 2007 published that ICT group of Cambodia and South Korea met during “Meeting and discussion ICT between Cambodia and South Korea 2007.” This same newspaper quoted Prince Sisowath Pheanuroth, president of councilors for Cambodia Small and Medium enterprise raised that in order to respond to free market competitions, Cambodia needs to strengthen its capability in information technology to use e-commerce.
Why do we say ICT is useful to develop the country? Technology discovery has increased and the speed of communication also faster with digital. ICT has divided into three groups: 1-Information technology by using computers as the inevitable tools in developed societies to speed the work and also save the time. 2-Telecommunication including telephone (including fax machine) and the broadcast (radio, television) and broadcast through satellite. 3- Networking technology that is known as internet technology that is widely spread to be mobile phones and voice over IP (VOIP) communication through satellite and other communication.
Rectangular strategy and national development plans for 2006-2010 regarded ICT is a priority sector for development and reduce poverty. Through loads from development partners, the Royal Cambodia Government has reformed and prepared to use ICT in its administration such as: e-government, information system to manage financial taxes system.
To improve ICT for national development, the Royal Government of Cambodia needs to pay the major roles in drafting laws and other national policy. It does not mean that all countries have the same decision and they are always good. But Cambodia is seen that has made a right decision that the royal government has paid much attention to improve information communication technology that its officers have implemented it, they have observed that Ministry of Telecommunications and Post and national authority that in charge of information communication technology (NIDA).
Cambodia has emerged from civil war and opened its free markets that have allowed good opportunity for development on the information communication technology.
Civil society participations at all levels in the information era should be guaranteed for sustainability for national policy implementation into practice, management and evaluation. Royal Government must guarantees that free market competitions are justice that there are monopolies. Also the government must encourage and coordinate in building infrastructure to provide trainings and establishment of environment for ICT to spread all places.2
However, the policies that drafted by the government, relevant partners especially the private sectors, have influence for the outcomes. International telecommunication Union that is an inter governments for the government to coordinate legal issue and documents in the telecommunication sector, think that multi nations influences have increased. Globalization for multi companies means that government the government can censor telecommunication completely. Some private telecommunication companies owners are foreigners always pay attention to serve their interests. In situation of globalize markets, cooperation has extended and now there are more influences over other developing countries governments by allowing private companies to participate in the decision making to establish policies.
To develop the country that relies on this sector, Cambodia can not be separated from women’s participations in the sector. Information communication technology has given opportunities for women to have rights on the economic sector and other sectors including health and education. Education is an education sector that developing countries and developed countries are working to combine new ICT such as using computers, internet, radios and televisions as well as e-learning to support the education and training for women and children. Illiteracy is high for women and children and the lack of knowledge ICT is an obstacle to push women away from information. To have gaps in gender in education sector because of the lack of family responsibility that has changed according to the social culture has caused to have competition for women and children. Literacy is a foundation of computer knowledge which is needed for women to get other benefits of using ICT in education sector.
However, one country gets benefits from technology as long as the technology is widely using in the country and it also contains the national language. Because of this issue, institutes that are from local NGOs in Cambodia also participate with the Cambodia government through the Ministry of Education, Youths and Sports by establishing computer program in Khmer language for teaching students, civil servants and staff for national and international organizations.//